An audience may also find an overload of pathos repugnant. For example, after September 11, 2001, the majority of people in the United States experienced an overwhelming sense of anger and fear. However, when 9/11 was frequently mentioned in some of the 2004 presidential campaigns, many people were outraged. What for? Because they felt that their intense feelings about the 9/11 tragedy were being exploited and belittled by the candidates, and they were deliberately made to be afraid. They felt like their emotions were being manipulated to get votes. In this case, an overload of pathos returned to the candidates. When reading a text, try to understand when the author is trying to convince the reader with emotions, because when used in excess, pathetic calls can indicate a lack of substance or emotional manipulation of the audience. For more information, see the following links to misleading pathos. Character is another aspect of ethics, and it differs from credibility because it involves personal history and even personality traits.
A person may be credible, but lacks character or vice versa. In politics, for example, the most experienced candidates – those who could be the most credible candidates – sometimes fail in elections because voters do not accept their character. Politicians struggle to shape their character as leaders who care about the interests of voters. The candidate who succeeds in proving to voters (the public) that he or she has the kind of character they can trust is more likely to win. Understanding pathos is important for readers and writers. As a reader, you want to be in tune with the pathos of the author and consciously evaluate the emotions the author is trying to evoke. Then you can make informed decisions about the author`s motivations and writing methods. As a writer, you want to be aware of the proper use of pathos and pay attention to both your topic and your audience.
You don`t have to look like an after-school special unless you`re writing for one. Pathos works in conjunction with logos (logic) and ethos (credibility) to form a strong argument. However, not all arguments use the three rhetorical means. Each author must choose which combination of rhetorical means best suits their writing and corresponds to the chosen topic. Used correctly, pathos can give life to a bland argument for the audience. Pathos offers the audience the opportunity to relate to the subject through shared emotions. However, it is important to determine when pathos will be useful and when it will only serve to tarnish argumentative waters. At the end of the show, the camera panned and showed the protagonist alone, suffering from the bad decisions he or she had made. When you were a child, this kind of awkward emotionality was effective in conveying a point. Now that you`re an adult, it becomes easier to feel frustrated and even manipulated by an overload of emotions.
Emotion or “pathos” is a rhetorical device that can be used in an argument to attract the audience and help them connect with the argument. However, if you rely too much on pathos, your writing may feel like an after-school special. When reading, you should always think about the author`s credibility in relation to the topic, as well as his character. Here is an example of a rhetorical movement that joins ethos: when the author reads an article about abortion, she mentions that she had an abortion. This is an example of an ethical approach, as the author creates credibility through anecdotal evidence and first-person narration. In a rhetorical analysis project, it would be up to you, the analyzer, to point out this step and combine it with a rhetorical strategy. It`s probably clear now what pathos does: it evokes an emotional response from a reader by appealing to empathy, fear, humor, or some other emotion. Now let`s look at some examples of pathos you can find in written, spoken, or visual texts: Take, for example, a student writing an essay on human trafficking. Human trafficking – abducting or trapping people (usually women and children) and exposing them to horrific work situations – should be an already emotionally charged problem. However, once the student starts working on paper, he notices that he has a collection of facts and figures that the audience can easily part with.
What is needed is to make the subject alive for the reader. He must convey sympathy and horror to the reader. Then he comes across a first-person report about a teenager who was kidnapped in the United States. By including his account in his essay (with correct quote, of course), he allows the reader to experience the teenage girl`s disbelief and fear. And by experiencing this emotion, the reader begins to develop his own emotional response: sympathy, horror and anger. The student helped the reader connect to his reasoning through the effective use of pathos. We can first examine classical rhetorical appeals, which are the three ways of classifying the authors` intellectual, moral, and emotional approaches to get the audience to show the reaction the author is hoping for. Here`s another example of a new media text that uses pathos to prick sympathy with its audience: Logical appeals are based on rational ways of thinking such as On the one hand, when an author makes an ethical appeal, he or she tries to tap into the values or ideologies that the audience has, for example: patriotism, tradition, justice, equality, dignity for all humanity, self-preservation or other specific social, religious or philosophical values (Christian values, socialism, capitalism, feminism, etc.). These values can sometimes seem very close to emotions, but they are felt on a social level rather than on a personal level. When an author evokes the values that matter to the audience to justify or support their argument, we classify this as a philosophy. The audience will be under the impression that the author is making an argument that is “right” (in the sense of moral “rightness”), i.e., “My argument is based on the values that are important to you.
Therefore, you should accept my argument”). This first part of the definition of ethos therefore focuses on the values of the public. On the other hand, this sense of referring to what is “right” in an ethical call connects to the other meaning of ethos: the author. The philosophy that focuses on the author revolves around two concepts: the credibility of the author and his character.