California is still in the early stages of implementing and understanding the implications of its T21 law. Preliminary results show that, despite the short implementation time, tobacco traffickers and young adults have achieved a very high level of awareness of the law. Survey results suggest that the high level of awareness and support for the law may have contributed to reducing illicit tobacco sales among youth under the age of 18 and ensuring retailers` T21 compliance. As evidenced by New York retailers` compliance, vigilance and enforcement are necessary to maintain and improve compliance with tobacco sales to individuals under the age of 21.6 A survey of young adult e-cigarette purchase (YAEPS) in which young adult lures aged 18 to 19 tried to purchase electronic smoking devices. In order to reduce travel costs, postal codes with geographic proximity to the postal codes selected for YATPS were identified, and then all tobacco retailers in the selected postal code were selected for YAEPS. Figure 1 shows logic model T21. Key enforcement activities are listed in the first column.i Results reflect the tangible results of each activity. Short-term outcomes include anticipated early changes, such as increased awareness and support for the law, greater competence of retailers to comply with Form T21, and more calls to HSC. Interim results include a decrease in illicit tobacco sales to adolescents and young adults, as well as an increase in smoking cessation attempts. The long-term outcomes are the ultimate goals of the legislation: to increase the age at which smoking begins, reduce smoking prevalence, and reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.
Table 4 presents the RVR AOR by store type and region for each purchasing survey. In adapted models Vape Shops (AOR, 3.66; P = 0.025) and pure tobacco retailers (AOR, 6.13; P<0.001) are much more likely to sell electronic smoking devices in YAEPS, compared to convenience stores that sell gasoline, the most common type of tobacco retailer. In addition, the probability of selling conventional tobacco in YATPS is significantly lower in orange (AOR, 0.45; P=0.007), Alameda (AOR, 0.21; P<0.001), the San Francisco Peninsula and Northern Bay regions (AOR, 0.24; P<0.001), the north coast, Shasta Cascade and the eastern Sierra Nevada region (AOR, 0.50; P = 0.063) and the Sacramento region (AOR, 0.15; P<0.001) compared to Los Angeles. Comparing the TFWP before Q21 and after T21, there is a significant change in the RVR for pure tobacco retailers (P = 0.006) and "other" retailers (P = 0.005) compared to convenience stores selling gasoline when other factors are taken into account. Hawaii became the first state in the country to raise the smoking age on Jan. 1, after leading more than 100 cities, including San Francisco, Boston and New York. The minimum age to buy tobacco in the U.S. prior to 2019 varied by state and territory. As of December 2019, the smoking age is 21 in all states and territories after the federal law passed in Congress and was signed by President Donald Trump in December 2019.
Descriptive statistics and significance tests were performed on online CATS responses to determine changes over time. The household income variable was transcoded into a three-category response. Current tobacco use is based on past 30 day use. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the probability of agreeing with the statement that raising the legal smoking age for adolescents would reduce adolescent smoking prevalence, the probability of knowing T21, the probability of observing the updated minimum age of sale warning sign, and the probability of meeting T21 indicators, after adjusting for the Respondent`s Gender. Race, income and current consumption of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, little cigars or hookah. Hawaii was the first state to change the smoking age to 21 You must be at least 21 years old to purchase tobacco or tobacco-related products (e.g., cigarette paper, tobacco accessories, smoking instruments, or swallowing tobacco products) in the state of California. Like other studies, the California Tobacco Purchase Survey of Adolescents Aged 15 to 16 confirms that T21 is a promising strategy for reducing youth access to tobacco products.5 There has been a significant decrease in illicit tobacco sales to adolescents aged 15 to 16. Prior to Q21, the RVR YTPS had remained unchanged since 2009, suggesting that T21 played a role in the reduction.15 Particularly encouraging is the significant decline in sales at pure tobacco stores from 31.8% to 12.0%. Tobacco purchase survey data also indicate widespread compliance with Act T21 regarding the sale of tobacco to young adults aged 18 to 19.
The YATPS-RVR was 14.2% and the YAEPS-RVR was 13.1%, well below Synar`s federal rate of 20.0% to avoid penalties for the state`s block grant for drug prevention and treatment.12 Store types primarily engaged in selling tobacco products (pure tobacco stores and vaping stores) were most likely to engage in illegal sales tobacco. while pharmacies and supermarkets were the least likely to make a sale. There were large regional differences in compliance with T21; The Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Clara and Central Valley areas had RVR of over 15.0%. Results Seven months after the T21 slip came into force, 98.6% of retailers were aware of the law and 60.6% supported it. In addition, 66.2% of retailers agreed that people who started smoking before the age of 21 become addicted to tobacco products. RVR with juvenile lures less than 18 years of age decreased statistically from 10.3% before T21 to 5.7% after T21 (P = 0.002).